Jan C. Still Lugerforums banner
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VPS is a unit mark, probably for the Verstärkter Polizeischutz. The VPS was setup in 1937 and consisted of older men who could be called up for police duty in an emergency (like war for example). In 1940, it was renamed the Polizei-Reserve.
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While that interpretation would make sense from the letters, the late date of that organization (1937) speaks against that. Per decree by Himmler‘s office, all marking of police guns was to cease by mid-1936 (although exceptions are known).

Another option offered is „Verwaltungspolizei“ (administrative police) plus a city with S.

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True, but the 1936 memo hardly meant there was a hard cutoff date for the practice. I don't find the Verwaltungspolizei explanation very persuasive either. Where are the other "V.P.X" markings? VPH? VPB? I have never seen one. They are all VPS, and that was definitely the abbreviation used for police reservists (VPS-Mann).
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If you could show an actual post-1936 produced police Luger with the V.P.S. marking, that would certainly bolster your case. If, on the other hand, it should be an early-1920s non-standard local stamping, the existence of other variations wouldn‘t be a compelling requirement.

In the meantime, I found some old discussions involving Don Maus and Klaus Schad’s opinion that it could mean “Verkehrs-Polizei Sachsen”, as well as “Verkehrs-Polizei-Schar Württemberg“, although on the latter one would expect the locality to be represented by a letter too. No indication where they got Württemberg.
 

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You make good points, but your favored interpretation has a similar issue. Verstärkter Polizeischutz was a Reichs-wide organization which by 1939 was able to form bataillon-size units, so the V.P.S. marking should be the most commonly encountered stamping on Nazi-era police Lugers, since most city- and state-specific marking had ceased. But it is in fact not that common.

Since the VPS was initially organized within the Schutzpolizei-Kommandos, you‘d also expect canceled, overstamped older markings. But the examples I can find (all so far pre-1918) have only the V.P.S.
 
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