Jan C. Still Lugerforums banner
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Your description of the problem sounds like the firing pin is not able to move back when it contacts the sear surface, and that would explain why the bolt only goes into battery when you pull the trigger. The guide cannot work its way loose unless something is drastically wrong, and in the action, if the guide is not in position, some damage would probably occur, because there is no extra room behind it when the toggle is slammed all the way back in normal recoil. I can imagine the last shot before failure would have seen something get damaged, with the guide coming or being out of place.
Somehow the firing pin spring guide's shaft may be offset in the well, not centered, but against the side, and blocking the rear of the firing pin. The fact that you found the guide out of place suggests that something is not right in there, either the back lip of the pin tunnel keyway may be bungled, or the pin has something foreign in there with it jamming it, or the guide has its key worn down, etc. Check the inside of the frame where the back of the bolt / firing pin spring guide make contact upon full recoil, for a possible clue. Be sure there is nothing else in the well except the firing pin, spring, and guide. Before you assemble the toggle train with bolt into the receiver, check that the firing pin is free to be pushed back onto its spring, so that it is able to be "cocked".

The Luger action is easier to view, understand, and troubleshoot than almost any other gun. The Luger action is mostly linear, and right-angular, in contrast to the compound rotational action and camming of trigger and hammer which is usually hidden inside the lower frame of typical semi-automatics.
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